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Lux Veritatis House-Style Guide

Lux Veritatis follows Chicago-style (Turabian), with the following in-house modifications:

  1. Each article must have a title; a main title with a subtitle is also acceptable. 

  2. The body of the article should have titled sections. Sub-sections are also acceptable, but no further subdivisions. 

  3. Footnotes ought to be used, not endnotes or parenthetical references (except for scriptural citations, which must be parenthetical). ​​

    • Place all bibliographical data in footnotes. Footnotes should not be indented and should be single spaced.

    • Note callouts should be positioned after punctuation. 

    • Avoid quick succession of note callouts, especially multiple notes within a single sentence.

    • Always include the author's name in the note; where it is appropriate, use "Ibid."

    • Use "vol." rather than "v." Do not use "p." for page numbers, but simply list the numbers. Do not use "op. cit." or "cf."; use "ibid." or "see" as appropriate. 

    • The first citation of a source must be a complete bibliographic citation. Subsequent references to the same work should use an abbreviated form of author, title, and page number. If a reference to the same work follows immediately in sequence, use "Ibid." 

    • Overly length footnotes that will spill onto a following page should be avoided. 

  4. Examples of footnote citations (first citation):​

    • Robert Sokolowski, "What is Natural Law?" Human Purposes and  Natural Ends." The Thomist 68, no. 4 (2004): 507 - 29, at 508. ​

    • Russell Hittinger, "The Declaration on Religious Liberty, Dignitatis Humanae," in Vatican II: Renewal Within Tradition, ed. Matthew L. Lamb and Matthew Levering, 359 - 82 (Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), 35. 

    • Jacques Maritain, God and the Permission of Evil, trans. Joseph W. Evans (Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Company, 1966), 35. 

  5. Quotations

    • Use double quote marks for quotations and single quote marks for quotations within quotations. Place the period within the quotation marks.​

    • In quotations, the first letter of the first word quoted may be changed from caps to lowercase or vice versa in order to accommodate its place within the sentence. Do not use brackets to indicate such a grammatical change. 

    • When material is omitted from a citation, if the omitted material falls in the middle of a sentence, then the omission should be signaled by three double-spaced periods. If the omitted materials comes toward the end of the sentence, or the end of one sentence and material from one or more subsequent sentences, then it should be signaled by four double-spaced periods. Do not use parentheses or brackets to set off these ellipses. 

    • Quotations from other languages should be translated if in the main text. The original language text, unitalicized, may be reproduced in a footnote if it is deemed important. Brief portions or individual words of the original language within one's translation should be set off with brackets and the original language italicized.

    • Quotations in Greek or Hebrew should use the appropriate fonts and these should be indicated to Lux Veritatis staff during the publishing process.

  6. Block Quotations​

    • Block citations should be indented one inch from the left margin of the manuscript text without quotation marks.​

    • They should be single-spaced and long enough to occupy at least four full lines.

    • Use double quotation marks for quotations within block citations.

    • Authors should show by indentation whether the text that resumes after a block quotation (or a list or other similar interruption) continues the paragraph that was proceeding just before the interruption or is a new paragraph. 

  7. Abbreviations​

    • Use abbreviation in parenthetical citations and in notes; use spelled-out form in the main text. For example, "That is" and  "(i.e.)"​

    • The proper form for scriptural citations is (Mt 5:26-28) not (Mt 5: 26-28) or (Mt 5:26-8).

    • See below for in-house abbreviations. 

    • In general, do not use abbreviations for titles, including Church documents. 

    • As an exception to the above, the Catechism of the Catholic Church should be spelled out the first time and then can be abbreviated as CCC. 

    • Spell out the first reference to the Summa Theologiae or Summa contra Gentiles. Further references should be abbreviated ST or ScG. 

  8. References to the Summa Theologiae should use the format: ST, IIa-IIae, q. 12, a. 1, obj. 3 [sc / c. / ad 1, ad 2]. The full title should be spelled out for the first reference. 

  9. Emphasis and Italics

    • For emphasis use italics. Do not use boldface or small caps for emphasis. ​

    • Do not use italics for ibid., idem., loc. cit., et al., etc.

    • Italicize "per se" only if the Latin phrase is meant, not the English adverb. 

    • Italicize the titles of books, journals, and individual foreign words or phrases (exception: original language text used in a footnote). 

    • Do not use italics for foreign expressions familiar in theological English. 

  10. Capitalization​

    • Only capitalize proper nouns. Divine pronouns should be uppercase. 

    • Capitalize "Pope" (etc.) only when it refers to a particular pope. 

    • Capitalize "Church," "Christ," "Eucharist," "Trinity," "Paschal mystery," "Incarnation," "Cross" (Jesus's), "Resurrection" (Jesus's). 

    • For Latin titles, capitalize as in English, e.g. Summa Theologiae, not Summa theologiae. Capitalize both words of all Church documents, even when using the Latin title, e.g. Lumen Gentium, Aeterni Patris, Veritatis Splendor. 

  11. Miscellaneous​

    • Between numbers, use an en dash, not a hyphen. E.g. 113–15, 200–206, 201–3.​

    • Dates should be formatted as follows: 1920–25, 1900–1908, 1903–1905. 

    • Punctuation should be set within quotation marks. 

    • Use American spelling. E.g. "neighbor" rather than "neighbour." 

    • Use "Aquinas's" rather than "Aquinas'" for all names that end in "s" with the exception of Jesus and Moses.

    • Do not use spaces to indent paragraphs; use either the tab key or file formatting. There should not be extra vertical space between paragraphs. 

    • Use one space rather than two after each sentence. 

In-House Abbreviations

For abbreviations not listed here, the abbreviations typically used in that subject-area or subfield should be followed. Authors are also allowed to define their own abbreviations. 

Typical Theological Reference Works — Please use full title in first citation and then define the abbreviation. For example:

             Denzinger (indicate edition in first cite)                          DZ

             Corpus Christianorum, Series Latin                                 CCSL

Books of Scripture









1 Sm / 2 Sm

1 Kgs / 2 Kgs

1 Chr /2 Chr






1 Mac / 2 Mac





Sgs (or Cant)



























1 Cor/ 2 Cor





1 Thes / 2 Thes

1 Tim / 2 Tim




1 Pet / 2 Pet

1 Jn/ 2 Jn / 3 Jn



Works of Aristotle or Plato — Use the English titles given in the translation followed. If the author translates the passages, use the traditional Latin titles. 

Example citations: Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, X.8, 1179a23–25.

These may be abbreviated afterwards (e.g. NE, X.8, 1179a23–25. Always provide Bekker numbers for Aristotle and Stephanus numbers for Plato. 

Works of St. Thomas Aquinas — After the first citation, giving the full title of the work (see here), please consistently use typical abbreviations for the works of St. Thomas. The first three below are a required format; the others are examples.

ST, IIa-IIae, q. 24, a. 6, ad 3. 

In III Sent., d. 23, q. 3, a. 4

ScG, I.59, n. 1 [paragraph number from edition used]

De Malo, q. 7, a. 2, obj. 11

De Veritate, q. 14, a. 5

De Caritate, a. 3

Super I Cor., 14, lect. 1

Super Ioan., 2, lect. 2

It is required that authors translating St. Thomas cite the Latin source which they used. 

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